Professor Leslie Holmes is an expert on post-communism, government legitimacy, comparative corruption, organised crime and corporate crime in Central and Eastern Europe.
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More than 100 artefacts from the First World War have been uncovered in an archaeological fieldwork survey on the Gallipoli battlefield, leading to some interesting theories about life on the frontline according to University of Melbourne survey archaeologist Professor Antonio Sagona.
The discoveries were made as part of a second season of fieldwork undertaken as part of the Joint Historical and Archaeological Survey – the only systematic survey of the battlefields of Gallipoli since the First World War.
The survey covered the northern frontline areas on the Turkish and Allied sides. One of the most significant finds was the Malone’s Terraces area at Quinn’s Post.
William Malone commanded New Zealand’s Wellington Infantry Battalion. Malone’s men relieved the Australians at Quinn’s Post in June 1915. This was a key position, where even the smallest advance by the Turk’s would have forced the evacuation of the Anzacs.
Malone, who was killed on 8 August 1915, greatly improved living arrangements at the post, including building terraces for troops to sleep in. These terraces were thought to have been lost.
The team also uncovered more than a thousand metres of trenches, dugouts and tunnel openings. Some 130 artefacts depicting life on the battlefields were also recovered and handed to a local museum for preservation.
Some of the findings included three water bottles with bullet holes, pieces of medical bottles, tin food containers, expended ammunition, glass shards, shrapnel and barbed wire fragments.
“We also found that Turkish kitchens were much closer to the frontline than on the Allied side, indicating access to fresh meals. Processed food containers were common on the Allied side but not the Turkish,” Professor Sagona said.
“In some areas it is clear that the Turkish soldiers used local materials – bricks and ceramic roof tiles – to reinforce their trench and tunnels whereas, no bricks or tiles were found on the Allied side.”
The team also discovered the complexity of trenches near the frontline, noting that some trench networks were so dense that they would be difficult to map using even modern day techniques.
The survey was conducted by a team of 17 archaeologists, historians and researchers from Australia, New Zealand and Turkey. Maps of the survey area, a selection of images of artefacts, a historical image of William Malone and further background on the survey is available at www.dva.gov.au/media.