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Prof. Tony Scott
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The study by University of Melbourne health economist Tony Scott found male GPs with kids earn up to $105,000 a year more than their female counterparts.
The research finds women with kids work fewer hours, but also that 'doctor dads' work longer and harder.
"Male GPs with children seem to work longer hours in order to be the responsible 'breadwinner' as their partners take time off," Professor Scott said.
"This behaviour change increases the gap in earnings between male and female doctors."
The study — published by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research — also found female GPs who have kids earn up to $25,000 less than childless female doctors.
They also earn significantly less than male GPs without children.
“As more women become doctors, the impact of this on access to health care and health care costs is important for medical workforce policy," Professor Scott said.
"To maintain the participation of women in the medical workforce, medical training programs and medical jobs need to be made more flexible.”
The research is based on the experiences of 3,618 GPs surveyed between 2008 - 2009 as part of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) panel survey.